s
Unix






shells:  bourne  $ /bin/sh Korn $ /bin/ksh C % /bin/csh bourne-again (bash) $
root #

file system: solaris = ufs





login ID's /etc/passwd
encrypted password /etc/shadow solaris >6 chars 2+ alpha 1+ numeric diff from old by 3 chars .
a hidden file


to change password
passwd username newpassword
rt click screen>tools>terminal
alt+f3 window to the back
alt+f9 minimize
alt+f4 close window


last=previous environmnet
default=gnome
failsafe=no startup scripts ran
CDE MAIL: aliases for groups
can't attach multi files
answerbook 2
help manager


man -ks name
name of command
-k keywords
-s section name
in solaris root must run catman -w for -k to work
name -?
quick help


info
info info
p previous node
n next node
m modename
c cross reference
info docs


hostname
displays hostname
uname -a
expanded system info
arp <hostname>
host name ip address ethernet address


domainname
domain
prtconf | grep Memory
memory useage




ctrl-q screen scroll
crtl-c interupt process
ctrl-d end of file
quit window restart
kill process id
log out and back in again


relative path from pwd
absolute path from top level
$ commands [options] [arguments]
cal
date
clear


ls -aAlFtdRn
-a list all
-A list all but no . or ..
-l long
-f filetype
-t top order
-n numeric ie 666
-d details (dir only) -R recursive


* represent any character
? match any one single char
[ - ] range of chars
> >> 2> < redirection
| pipe
! command redirection
~ users home


more filename
less filename
display contyents of textfile filename
spacebar scroll next screen
return scroll one line
b back one screen
f forward one screen
h help
q quit
/string search for string
N next occurrence of string


ctrl-c interrupt process
ctrl-s stop screen output eg from cat
ctrl-q resume screen output
ctrl-d eof
ctrl-u erase the commad line
ctrl-w erase last word
ctrl-h erase last char


file filename
determines file type of filename
strings filename
print readable chars in filename
cat
cocatenate


head -n filename[s]
display first n lines of filename
default is 10
tail -n +n filename[s]
-n last n lines in filename the last +n lines starting from line n
avoid *&|""$ in file or directory names


wc -lwcm
wordcount
-l lines
-w words
-c bytes
-m chars


diff -lc file1 file2
compares file1 file2
-l ignore case
-c detailed comparison
cmp
as diff but only if file1 file2 differ


touch filename[s]
create  a new empty file called filename
has rw-rw-rw- 666
permission
mkdir -p directoryname directoryname
make directory[subdirectory]
-p parents


rm -ir
delete files
-i interactive ie confirm deletion
-r recursive ie all child items
aliased to rm -i by default
\rm rm not aliased


rmdir
remove empty directorys
cd
change directory
.. up one level
../.. up two levels



cp -ir
copy files directorys
-i interactive
-r recursive
ln
create a link


mv -i
rename or move a file
-i interactive





stdin
standard input
<  0<
command redirectionsymbol file



stdout
standard output
> 1>





stderr
standard error
2>
eg ls /etc > etc.list
set -o noclobber
prevent overwriting


pipe
|
a metacharacter
command | command
direct output of one command into another command


solaris partitions are slices
0 root
1 swap
2 entire disk
3 usr
4 home
/dev/dsk/controller cn
target tn
disk dn
slice sn
mount:
the process of attaching a filesystem to an empty directory
linux: primary partitions are
/dev/hda1 2 3 4
first logical partition is
/dev/hda5
one partition MUST be /
next disk is hdb

scsi drive is sdan


df
show disk usage (solaris)
du -sk
show disk usage (linux)
-s summary
-k kilobytes


find path -expression [action]
find files
-name filename by name
-type filetype by filetype
-perm mode by permission mode


-mtime +n older by n days
-mtime -n newer than n days
-size +n larger than n
- size -n smaller than n byteblocks c bytes


-atime +n
accessed before n
-atime -n
accessed after n
-group groupid by group
-user loginid by userid

-exec command {}\;
run the file[s] found
-ok command {}\;
run the file[s] found interactively
-ls print the path


grep[options] string filename

find text string string in file filename n

egrep molre metacharacters


sed [options] [address] filename [>newfile]
stream editor: find/ edit large strings
s search


-n
dont print to screen
p except these lines
'x,y'
display lines x to y
g global


/ /
delimit round char/string to search/ insert
$ append
^ insert
d delete


sort [options] input-filename
-n numeric
-r reverse order
-f fold ie ignore case
+nM by month


-d dictionary ie non ascii
-o output to filename
+n -n begin the sort/ end the sort after n
-kn keyfields sort


vi
command mode

a append
A  append at the end of the line
i insert
o open new line
ZZ same as qw



entry mode
inserts appends deletes
x delete char
dw delete word ndw
dd delete line     ndd
replace n words lines
cw change word
r replace char
u undo previous
yy copy line (yank)
p paste below current line
P above current line



last-line mode
saves. use : first
w write
q quit
q! immediate quit


cursor positioning:
$ end of line
o origin of line
w forward a word
b back a word
j down a line
k up a line
spacebar right one
return origin of next line
h back one
i forward one




G last line of file
:n go to line n
!spell word spell check
!command run command
/string search forward for string
?string search backward
n next occurrence
N previous


emacs
c-x c-f open a file
c-x c-v restart
c-x c-s save
c-x c-c exit emacs
c-g abort
c-h help
c-h t tutorial
c-h ? see help options
c-v forward a screen
tab-v back a screen
c-l clear screen
tab-x abort emacs
c-a beginning of line
c-e end of line
c-n next line
c-p previous line
c-b back one char
c-f forward one char



directory-user-group-others
d             rwx  rwx     rwx
r=4 w=2 x=1
chmod nnn -r filename
777 etc
-r recursively
chmod ugoa =-+ filename
user group other all
= set
- remove
+ add
permission


umask
subtract from numerical permissions

chown new-owner filename change owner

who, finger
displays users currently logged in

chgrp _R new-group filename
change group


su username
switch user

id
displays current user



who am i
displays current user, ignores su
id -a
displays all users




lp options filename -d destination ie not the default printer
-m send mail that the ptint is complete
-n print n copies
-o no banner page
linux uses lpr



lpstat options printer-queue-name
-p display staus of all printers
-o outstanding print staus if all print requests
-d display default printer
-t tell all
-s summary
-a accepting

cancel option request-id/userid
in solaris, cancel print jobs
-u user's jobs



fdformat
low level format a floppy
mkfs
make a unix file system on a floppy
mount
mount a drive


umount
unmount a drive






tar [function] modifier output-file filename

compress [options] filename
makes a .Z file


tar
[c] create
f file
uncompress
-v verbose
-c content ie view a .Z file
decompresses



[t] able of contents
v verbose






[x] extract
k multispan
jar
similar to tar but DOES compress


cpio [options][patterns]
-o to standard output (same as >)
-v verbose ie print a list of filenames
-t print a table of contents
-p to path ie another directory
-O output file name
-i import -I input



kill (-signal) process-id/%job-id
-15 SIGTERM end properly
-9 SIGKILL end abrubtly
pkill solaris
killall linux


jobs
display all background jobs
bg
place a job in the background
fg
place a job in the foreground


stop
suspends a job






at [time-spec][scriptfilename/command]
at 03:00 1 jun 2004 find . -name *.jpg




crontab [mins hrs date mnth day-ofweek] [scriptfilename/command]